During warmer weather you should be aware of the risk that overheating poses to your dogs health and well being. Our recent article Overheating & Heat Stroke in Dogs provides information on how to recognise and treat overheating; this time were are going to offer a few ideas for keeping your dog cool in the summer.
The following suggestions are all preventative measures for overheating and will help your pet to dissipate some of their core body temperature through conduction (passing his body heat directly to a conductive material) and convection (transferring his body heat to the air through evaporation) or a mixture of the two. These suggestions can be used in addition to always providing your dog with plenty of cool, fresh drinking water and the availability of shade and ventilation.
In warm weather we all reach to the fridge for a cooling drink or snack, why not do the same for your dog. A slice of cool melon, a chilled carrot, some natural yoghurt; anything that is dog safe and will help keep him cool too.
The freezer is also a source of cooling treats. Most dogs will enjoy a chew on an ice cube or frozen vegetable sticks. There are pet safe ice creams and frozen yoghurts available from many pet stores that your dog will love. Alternatively, buy and freeze some pouches of baby food (checking the ingredients for items that a poisonous to dogs), snip across the top of the pouch and then slide out the tasty, cold treat for your dog to enjoy.
Make an Ice Treat
Use an ice cube, cupcake or muffin tray to make some individual ice treats made from a watery chicken broth, fish stock or gravy. You could also use some of your dogs favourite treats by freezing chunks of cheese or cooked meat in water.
There are plenty of frozen toys with a sponge centre that you soak and freeze available from pet stores. The idea is that your dog will chew, lick and shake them thus releasing cool water and cooling their mouth. If you decide to buy one of these items, please check its durability and suitability for your breed.
You can use existing treat toys such as a frozen Kong stuffed with fruit; alternatively you can make your own frozen toy by soaking a tea towel in water, place treats randomly across it (hotdog slices and cheese work well), roll it up, scrunch it, then pop it in the freezer for a couple of hours until partially frozen.
When giving your dog any kind of frozen or chilled toy, alway monitor the condition of the toy and remove from the dog if parts become damaged or loose.
Perfect for summer walks, in the garden or at the beach or park, cooler coats are fitted dog jackets created from absorbent material that you can soak with water. The water held in the material slowly evaporates, drawing heat away from your dog’s body and reducing their temperature.
If your dog is overheating you can create the same effect by getting him to shade and placing a cool, wet towel over his body. You can aid the evaporation process by creating a breeze using fans.
Cooling Collars and Bandanas
Working on the same principle as (although less effective than) cooler coats, cooling collars and bandanas hold water by your dogs skin, thus allowing the heat to transfer through evaporation.
Some collars contain pouches that store ice or gel packs which will aid cooling. Ice shouldn’t be used in cases of overheating as this may cause blood vessels near the surface of the body to constrict and may decrease heat transfer.
Again, you can create the effect of a cooling collar/bandana by creating your own from a tea towel, soaked in water and tied loosely around your dogs neck.
Cooling mats fall into 2 categories, wet and dry. They are great for the home, garden or in the back of a car.
Wet mats are made from a highly absorbent material, usually backed with a waterproof material. The user activates the mat by soaking the mat. As your dog lies on the mat, heat is transferred to the mat and dissipated through evaporation.
Dry mats are usually gel filled and require no activation. As your dog lies on the mat, heat is transferred and dissipated to cooler regions of the mat. These mats can be folded and chilled in the fridge for extra effectiveness.
Yet again, the effect of a cooling mat can be replicated using a towel soaked in cool water.
Paddling Pool / Hose Play
You may have noticed a theme in some of these ideas/products; cool water helps to keep a dog cool. All dog owners know that a dogs coat can take ages to dry so let’s get old school and get the hose out, fill the paddling pool and have some fun.
By soaking your dogs coat, his body heat will transfer to the water and evaporate. Keep soaking him and he’ll stay cool. If you are out and about, let him swim or pour water on him and rub it down to the skin.
Fans, Air Conditioning & Dehumidifiers
Heat transfers to the air very slowly, if that air is moving heat can transfer much quicker (think how the slightest draught can give you a chill). By fanning your dog or providing an electric fan this heat transfer is accelerated. A wet dog that is fanned will cool much quicker than a dry dog in still air.
If you have air con in the home or car, turn it on to help keep your dog cool on warm days. The cool, moving air will transfer heat from his body; whilst the reduced humidity will allow water to evaporate from his mouth and tongue more easily thus dissipating heat more easily.
Humidifiers do not cool the air significantly, but the reduction in humidity will again aid evaporation and heat dissipation.
As your dog heats up he starts panting, evaporating water from his system. This evaporation takes heat away from his body, cooling him down. This water needs replenishing through drinking plenty of clean fresh water.
When you are out and about, particularly in the summer months, you should carry water for your dog and provide the opportunity to drink at regular intervals. You can either plan a walk around places where your dog can drink or carry a water supply with you.
Carry a lightweight flexible bowl and bottle of water that you can refill it water sources to ensure that you always have plenty of water available.
Wherever you go, your dog will follow. If you spend a sunny day in the garden, at the park or on the beach your dog will be right by your side. Without shade, your dog will overheat on a hot sunny day.
There are countless options for buying dog specific beds and shades, but a simple beach shelter will provide perfect shade. The beauty of these is that they can be relatively cheap and once erected can be turned as the sun crossed the sky to maximise the shade all day. They tend to have a floor that you can place a cooling mat in for maximum effectiveness.
If you don’t have a shelter, create some shade using 2 deck chairs and a towel, turn your windbreak into a tunnel tent or go home.
Enjoy the Summer
We hope you have enjoyed reading a few of our ideas for keeping your dog cool in summer. Please post any of your suggestions in the comments section below.
Enjoy your summer and stay cool.
Recently, we’ve had a couple of nice warm, sunny days here in Bolton and it got me pondering the perennial concerns relating to dogs and hot weather.
We all know that dogs die in hot cars thanks to excellent campaigns by the RSPCA, Dogs Trust, PETA and other animal organisations; what often gets overlooked is the fact that dogs die needlessly from heatstroke on warm days in parks, houses and gardens too.
In this article I’ll attempt to outline some of the facts surrounding dogs and overheating. Why and how it happens, the signs of overheating and what to do if your dog is overheating. Please take time to read and share this article, it may help to prevent the needless suffering of a loved pet.
A dogs core temperature
The average core temperature of a healthy dog is considered to be 38°C (101°F); however, the normal temperature of a healthy dog may range from 37°C to 39°C (99 °F to 102.5°F). A core temperature of over 39°C (103°F) is considered abnormal and requires immediate action. At 41°C (106°F) a dog will be suffering from heat stroke which can lead to multiple organ dysfunction and ultimately death.
Some dogs are more at risk to overheating than others, but at The Way of the Dog we consider this information superfluous to the need for education on overheating and heat stroke in dogs. We believe that all dog owners should be aware of the signs of overheating and heat stroke and be aware of the actions they need to take.
The causes and effects of overheating
There are many medical and physiological causes of overheating. As this article is related to the heat of a summer day we will focus only on these causes, but the symptoms and required actions are the same whatever the cause.
By exposing a dog to excessive environmental heat and humidity, excessive exercise or a combination of both heat and exercise your dogs core body temperature will begin to rise. His mind and body will respond as he attempts to regulate it.
First, he will attempt to remove himself from the heat source by finding shade and/or stopping exercising. His blood vessels will dilate bringing hot blood close to the surface allowing it to cool. He will begin to sweat from the pads of his paws and will pant to bring air into his upper respiratory system to evaporate water from his mouth, tongue, throat and lungs thus dissipating heat. He will need to drink a lot of water to compensate for this evaporation. You should assist him to achieve this reduction in temperature by stopping exercising immediately and by providing shade, a breeze and plenty of cool fresh water.
In most cases this is enough to allow the dog to slowly reduce his core body temperature to it’s normal level. You should continue to monitor him for further symptoms and respond accordingly.
When overheating leads to heat stroke
If your dog is not removed from the heat source, is continued to be exercised and/or is unable to access enough water his temperature will continue to rise above 39°C (103°F). As he struggles to overcome the heat this starts a series of reactions that are difficult to stop, even if the animal eventually gets his temperature down. Heat stroke causes his organs and body systems to be affected and shut down, possibly leading to the death of your pet. By 41°C (106°F), irreversible damage will have occurred.
Symptoms of heat stroke
- Body temperature above 39°C (103°F)
- Severe panting
- Sudden breathing distress
- Lying down and won’t get up (panting may have ceased)
- Excessive drooling
- Reddened gums and moist tissues of the body
- Diarrhoea, sometimes bloody
- Vomiting, sometimes bloody
- Rapid heart rate
- Irregular heart beats
- Weak rapid pulse
- Changes in mental status
- Lack of awareness of surroundings
- Staggering, appears blind or drunken
- Muscle tremors
Treatment of heat stroke
Your objective here is to gradually reduce the dogs core body temperature; reducing it too quickly can cause further problems for your dog. Use cool, not cold water. Never use ice or iced water.
- Remove your dog from any external heat sources. Find a shaded, well ventilated area that is close to a water source.
- Provide the dog with plenty of cool, fresh drinking water. Do not force it to drink but you can moisten its tongue and mouth if it is lying down and panting.
- Spray cool water over the dogs coat and rub in to the skin. Continue spraying.
- Wrap the dog in cool wet towels, replacing them regularly.
- Immerse the dog in cool water.
- Use a fan to create a breeze.
- Call your vet and explain what is happening and that you will be coming in.
If possible, you should monitor the dogs temperature and stop cooling once it returns to 39°C (103°F). Whilst continuing to monitor its temperature, you should now get your dog to your veterinary surgeon as soon as possible. Take wet towels/spray bottles for the journey to keep him cool.
Your pet will have undergone severe stress to its body and organs. Your vet will will need to examine your dog to check that its temperature has been reduced and has stabilized, and that no long lasting damage has taken place. Complications, such as a blood-clotting disorder, kidney failure, or fluid build-up in the brain will need to be immediately and thoroughly treated.
At The Way of the Dog, we sincerely hope that this article has provided you with some essential advice on recognising and acting upon any signs of overheating in dogs. There are 4 key elements to remember:
- Be aware of putting your dog in a situation or environment where overheating is possible.
- Always monitor your dog for signs of overheating.
- Act to reduce the temperature of an overheating dog quickly and effectively.
- Always consult your vet if overheating has occurred and any of the symptoms of heat stroke have been displayed.
Enjoy the summer. Enjoy your dog.
Contribution by Matthew@HeppinessWebDesign
Sources and further reading:
Various articles at www.petmd.com
Temperature of a Healthy Dog (1999) – Jie Yao Huang (Janice)
Thermoregulation in Dogs and the Dangers of Hyperthermia for the Layperson (2011) – Jerilee A. Zezula, D.V.M.
Just like many of us, dogs love the spring. It signifies the return of evening walks, weekend outings and time in the garden with the family.
But, spring brings with it a host of issues that all dog owners should be aware of. At The Way of the Dog, our articles are focused on providing dog owners with information on how best to maintain the health and wellbeing of their canine friend. In this article we will cover a few of the considerations you should make for your dog this spring.
Spring is generally a good time for a dog in the home; the windows get opened, the fresh air blows through and the house gets a spring clean. The only thing to consider here is your use and storage of cleaning products. Try to use products that you know have no effect on your dog, store them safely and securely and monitor your dog for allergic reactions to any new products used in your home (see info on allergies below).
The same rules apply if you decide to decorate any part of your home. Always consider your dog; keep him/her safe from harm, keep them away from equipment and chemicals, and keep the house ventilated.
The greatest dangers we expose our pets to in the home environment in the spring are often associated with the garden. Tulips, hyacinths, daffodils, lilies and crocus are common spring plants but they are all poisonous or irritant to dogs. Many lawn care products and fertilisers are potentially fatal to our pets.
The database of plants, foods and household items and their toxicity at www.petpoisonhelpline.com can be used to assess the risks of these items in your home. It also informs you what to do in the event of ingestion.
Out and About
Spring signifies new life, new life that can be threatened by your dog’s proximity.
By law, you must control your dog so that it does not disturb or scare farm animals or wildlife. On most areas of open country and common land, known as ‘access land,’ you must keep your dog on a short lead between 1 March and 31 July and all year round near farm animals.
Take particular care that your dog doesn’t scare sheep and lambs or wander where it might disturb birds that nest on the ground and other wildlife – eggs and young will soon die without protection from their parents.
You do not have to put your dog on a lead on public paths as long as it is under close control. But as a general rule, keep your dog on a lead if you cannot rely on its obedience. If this is the case with your dog, please get in touch with us, our Dog Obedience Service can help you strengthen your dog control and recall.
Bugs, Beasties and Creepy Crawlies
Spring also sees the reemergence of all those bugs, beasties and creepy crawlies that disappear in the winter months.
- Fleas – Fleas become more prevalent as the spring weather begins to warm. They live off the blood of animals and are a nuisance to their hosts, causing an itching sensation which in turn may result in the host attempting to remove the pest by biting, pecking, scratching, etc. Flea bites generally cause the formation of a slightly raised, swollen itching spot with a single puncture point at the centre.
- Midges – Midges pose no real health risk to your dog other than irritation. The bites of a female midge have the same effect on your dog as it does to you. Midge bites generally cause the formation of a slightly raised, swollen itching spot with a single puncture point at the centre. Some dogs may have increased sensitivity to their bite and your vet can usually prescribe a anti-allergenic medicine.
- Mosquitos – As with midges, the UK mosquito poses only the risk of irritation to your dog. Mosquito bites generally cause the formation of a raised, swollen itching spot with a single puncture point at the centre. However, the European mosquito can carry heart worm. If travelling abroad you should speak to your vet about vaccination.
- Ticks – Ticks are parasites that feed on the blood of host animals for several days. They are particularly unpleasant beasties as they can carry and transit Lyme Disease to humans and pets. See our detailed article about your dog and ticks.
- Lungworm – Lungworm are a type of parasitic worm that can affect dogs living in the heart and blood vessels that supply the lungs. Your dog cannot become directly infected by lungworm, but can become a host by eating slugs and snails.
Infestation or pestering by any of these parasites can be prevented through the regular use of preventative medication. Your vet will be able to advise you on the type and dosage required to protect your dog. If infestation has already taken place, particularly with fleas, ticks or lungworms a trip to the vet is necessary.
Just like humans, dogs can suffer from seasonal allergies; but, unlike humans whose allergy symptoms usually involve the respiratory tract, allergies in dogs more often take the form of skin irritation or inflammation.
If your pet has allergies, it’s skin will become very itchy leading to scratching excessively, and/or biting or chewing at certain areas of the body. They may rub themselves against vertical surfaces like furniture, or may rub their face against the carpet. As the itch-scratch cycle continues, the skin will become inflamed and tender to the touch. Other signs of allergic dermatitis include areas of hair loss, open sores on the skin, and scabbing.
The best cure is to remove the allergen, soothe the symptoms and monitor your pet’s progress, but in many cases the allergen will be unknown. In this case you should consult your vet, who may recommend blood testing to find the cause and/or medication to soothe the symptoms
Some spring days can be sunny and warm, sometimes even hot. Therefore, it seems timely to remind you of the effects of this on your dog.
You dog struggles to regulate it’s own body temperature; it doesn’t sweat, it can’t take it’s coat off, it goes where you take it. It is your responsibility to ensure that it is safe from the dangers of overheating and to minimise it’s risks.
- Water – Your dog loses the majority of its heat through panting. It transfers body heat to moisture in the respiratory system which it breathes out thus expelling the heat. Using this method, your dog will become quickly dehydrated. Always make sure that your dog has plenty of fresh, clean water available.
- Exercise – Be careful not to over exercise your dog on a warm day as it will become at risk of overheating. If you keep throwing that ball, your dog will keep fetching it. Constantly monitor its breathing and look for signs of panting, then stop. Make sure that you have fresh, clean water available to offer your dog if you intend exercising them in warm weather.
- Hot Cars – We all know that dogs die in hot cars, but this applies to conservatories, tents and caravans too. The temperature inside your car can quickly become double the outside temperature once the sun comes out. Once that temperature rises to a point where your dog begins to overheat, it could be dead in a matter minutes. It is a painful, horrendous death. I will write a more detailed article on the speed at which this can happen in the lead up to summer.
- Grooming – All dogs will benefit from regular grooming to rid their coats of excessive insulation in the spring and summer, this also provides a great opportunity to check your dog for external parasites. Long haired dogs should have their coats cut frequently to help reduce the risks of overheating.
Enjoy the Spring
At The Way of the Dog, we advocate the daily exercising of your dog and spring often provides the perfect conditions for doing so. We hope that you will use the information presented in this article to make it a happier and healthy experience for your dog.
Contribution by Matthew@Heppiness
I recently heard a story featuring a car journey, an unsecured dog and an electric window switch; put these 3 elements together and the potential for catastrophe doesn’t bare thinking about. Thankfully, quick thinking and fast reactions prevented this tale from realising its scary potential.
Since hearing of this incident, I’ve noticed something that I hadn’t realised was quite so prevalent; dogs are being transported insecurely on Britain’s roads, putting the dog, the owner and others at risk.
Here’s our guide to transporting you dog safely….
Transporting an animal in the UK is subject to certain laws and regulations.
The Welfare of Animals (Transport) Order states that:
‘No person shall transport any animal in a way which causes or is likely to cause injury or unnecessary suffering to that animal.’
In addition to this
The Highway Code states that:
‘When in a vehicle make sure dogs or other animals are suitably restrained so they cannot distract you while you are driving or injure you if you stop quickly’.
This means that your dog must be transported in a way the will cause it no harm and will reduce the level of harm inflicted in the event of an accident. It must also be restrained from interfering with your driving and remove the risk of injury to passengers in the event of an accident.
The RAC Pet Insurance study of 2014 revealed that 4% of pet owners have had an accident, or a near miss, as a result of a pet being loose in their car. While the majority agree that it is a hazard to allow a dog to be loose in a vehicle, 28% said they would let their dog move freely. Also of concern is that 21% usually leave their dogs unsecured on car seats.
My observations would suggest that these are very conservative figures. This isn’t surprising as many owners wouldn’t want to admit to endangering their pets or breaking the law. Many are simply unaware of how to abide by these laws and regulations fully.
The remainder of this article covers some of the options available to dog owners for securing their pets whilst in a vehicle. Your decision will depend on vehicle type, budget and personal preference; here are a few options available on the market today.
Vehicle Pet Crates
Vehicle crates offer the most secure method of transportation, provided that it is sturdy and secured in place.
By placing your dog in a crate you remove any risk of it interfering with the driver and of it entering the passenger area in the event of an accident; it will however still hit the sides of the crate in the event of an accident, but it’s travelling distance will be relatively small.
You should choose a crate that can be secured with straps or bolts; it’s size will depend on the size of your dog. Your dog should be able to stand up and comfortably turn around. To increase comfort you can add a non-slip cushioned mat.
The negatives associated with crates usually relate to their cost, size, weight and the time taken to fit and remove them.
Car Pet Cages / Barriers
Pet car cages and barriers offer all of the same benefits as car crates, but the negatives are extenuated.
Your dog will not be able to interfere with the driver’s attention and will be secured from being projected through the passenger cabin in the event of a crash. There is however more space to travel inside a cage in the event of a crash; this will increase the risk of injury.
As with pet crates, you should choose a crate that can be secured with straps or bolts; it’s size will depend on the size of your dog. Your dog should be able to stand up and comfortably turn around. To increase comfort you can add a non-slip cushioned mat.
Once again, their size and time taken to fit and remove can be seen as a negative.
Smaller dogs may be transported in pet carriers on short journeys. These offer the same benefits as a car crate, providing they are sturdy and crash tested.
These carriers offer the benefit of being movable and lower in cost than a crate, but should only be used for small dogs. You should choose a carrier that can be secured with straps, harnesses or seat belts. Your dog should be able to stand up and comfortably turn around. To increase comfort you can add a non-slip mat.
Dog Safety Harnesses
Dog harnesses attach your dog to a fixed point in your car to prevent him/her from interfering with the driver. A good dog harness will also prevent your dog being propelled from it’s seat in the event of an accident.
A dog harness system is a good choice for those with small cars, saloon cars or those who do not wish to fill their vehicle with hardware. These systems aren’t as secure as a crate or cage, but typically cost less.
You should choose a harness with the correct rating for your size/weight of dog.
Making the Right Decision
Each of these restraint systems have their own pros and cons; what is suitable for one owner may not be suitable for another. But there are consistent concerns and checks for each.
- You should always check the suitability of each option for your dog and your vehicle.
- The variety in quality and suitability in all of these product ranges is vast – from poor to excellent. You should spend time researching them and reading reviews.
- You should research how any particular product has rated in crash tests for dogs of the same weight as your own. If a manufacturer is unable to give such information, it is prudent to assume that tests have not been completed and that the product may not be a suitable restraint in the event of an accident.
- You should weigh and measure your dog before purchasing any of the products to ensure the correct size/style is purchased.
- These systems should be fitted by an expert where possible.
- These systems should be regularly monitored for wear and tear and continued suitability.
More Safety Considerations
In addition to restraining your dog you should:
- Assess if your dog is fit to travel.
- Ensure that the dog has adequate ventilation.
- Ensure that the dog is shaded from direct sunlight.
- Monitor your dog for signs of overheating.
- On long journeys, ensure that the dog has regular access to water.
- If transported in the passenger cabin apply any child safety systems e.g. window locks, child safety locks, fit window guards.
- If transported on the boot of a hatchback, SUV, van ensure that back doors are fully closed and cages or crates do not contact the windows or doors.
- Never leave your dog unattended in a car.
Information provided by the government regarding the welfare of dogs during journeys can be found at https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/69549/pb10308-dogs-cats-welfare-060215.pdf
Contribution by Matthew@Heppiness
Most dog breeds were bred to work for a living and a particular purpose, like hunting, herding or providing protection. Wild dogs scavenge and hunt, care for offspring, defend territory and play with each other. They lead busy, complex lives, interacting socially and solving simple problems necessary for their survival.
Modern “pet” dogs no longer receive this level of stimulation and spend much of their time confined, alone and/or inactive. As a dog owner, you have a responsibility to fill this void.
Many of the dogs seen by The Way of The Dog have behavioural issues that are a consequence of lack of stimulation, interaction and daily exercise. This is most prevalent in the winter months, when dark mornings and evenings combine with cold (and often wet) weather to dissuade dog owners from providing the quality of exercise their dog requires. Every dog needs good quality daily exercise; this is a basic fact of dog ownership and should have been considered when bringing a dog into your life.
Lack of daylight and adverse weather conditions should not affect the levels of exercise you give your dog.
Be Seen, Stay Safe, Keep Warm
Staying safe on dark walks is as simple as being visible, being aware and wrapping up warm. Here are a few of our tips to help you and your dog stay safe and warm on your winter walks.
- Use a Hi-Vis reflective or led light lead and collar on your dog.
- Wear a Hi-Vis reflective vest over your coat.
- Carry a torch or use a headlamp.
- Avoid unlit roads.
- Avoid roads that have no pavement.
- If you cannot avoid roads without a pavement, walk on the right hand side (towards the traffic) with your dog to your right (on the opposite side to the traffic).
- Keep your dog on the lead.
- Use well lit walks that you are familiar with.
- Consider taking your dog in the car to a well lit safe area.
- Do you have a neighbour with a dog? Arrange to walk together.
- Remain aware of your surroundings; leave your headphones at home.
- Carry a mobile phone
- Bad weather requires appropriate clothing; a warm waterproof jacket, waterproof overtrousers, warm sturdy footwear, a hat and a good pair of gloves are the bare essentials.
- It is our experience that the best quality outdoor coat and boots should be purchased according to your budget.
- Consider your dog’s breed, age and health to decide if they require additional insulation.
- Keep moving; if you stand still you’ll feel the chill.
Other Winter Considerations
We have previously written an article that outlines some of the hazards to your dog’s safety and wellbeing in winter, which can be viewed at www.thewayofthedog.co.uk/winter-care-for-dogs/. We’d recommend that you read this as some of the points raised could save your dog’s life.
If you still feel unable to give your dog the exercise and stimulation it needs, there are a few things you could consider.
- Finding a way to change the times that you walk your dog.
- Enlisting the help of family members and friends.
- Employing a reputable, licensed, 1 to 1 dog walker.
- Rehoming your dog.
Article by Heppiness